Solid-matrix catalysts called heterogeneous catalysts are among the most widespread industrial applications in reducing toxic gases, unburned fuel, and particulate matter in the exhaust stream from the combustion chamber. They are also used in energy, chemical, and pharmaceutical sectors, i.e., production of biodiesel, polymers, biomass/waste conversion into valuable products, and many others processes. All thanks to their active sites and high surface. Nevertheless, their high efficiency is limited by the astronomic price of noble metals, So, cost-effective substitutes with comparable effectivity seem to be a holy grail for the industry.
Alzheimer's disease (AD) is a form of progressive dementia interfering with daily living. It is caused by the decline in the number of brain cells resulting in the deterioration of our mental abilities. One of the main reasons for the worsening brain cells condition and even the brain shrinkage are molecules having a specific structure called β-amyloids (Ab). They are peptides that tend to agglomerate around the nerve cells, becoming toxic and damage them.
If you were asked to identify ancient chemists’ and pharmacists' attributes, your best answer would probably be the mortar and pestle. For centuries, this mechanical tool was used for crushing and homogenizing solids like food ingredients or natural medicines. Together with its electrically-powered twin called a ball mill, this antique instrument has become must-have equipment for any laboratory devoted to green chemical synthesis. It enables us to create some materials and molecules more efficiently and even makes some entirely new ones. Recently, a research team led by Janusz Lewiński, a Professor at the Institute of Physical Chemistry Polish Academy of Sciences (IChF PAN) in Warsaw has brought this idea to the nanoscale by developing sustainable and efficient synthesis of coated zinc oxide nanocrystals by mechanochemical grinding.
In addition to the popular GPS, other systems like the European Galileo are also used to determine the position. The cooperation of many global navigation systems is the subject of numerous scientific studies. The precision of measurements translates into the correct operation of navigation for vehicles or drones, applications for athletes, smart watches, and the coordination of public transport.
What happens to artificial satellites orbiting the Earth, and how does General Relativity affect orbits and movement of satellites? Scientists from the Wroclaw University of Environmental and Life Sciences and ESA explain.