Geometric objects known as fractals used to be called 'beasts of mathematics' or 'outcasts'. Today, knowledge about them allows scientists to develop telecommunications, data security and entertainment (when the creators of cinema special effects use them), says Professor Andrzej Katunin from the Silesian University of Technology in Gliwice.
The 2021 Giuseppe and Vanna Cocconi Prize for outstanding contribution to Particle Astrophysics and Cosmology has been awarded to the Borexino Collaboration, which includes researchers from the Institute of Physics at the Jagiellonian University in Kraków.
Inside each proton or neutron there are three quarks bound by gluons. Until now, it has often been assumed that two of them form a “stable” pair known as a diquark. It seems, however, that it’s the end of the road for the diquarks in physics. This is one of the conclusions of the new model of proton-proton or proton-nucleus collisions, which takes into account the interactions of gluons with the sea of virtual quarks and antiquarks.
A nanosystem in the form of an organic platform that will improve the work of devices for artificial photosynthesis, such as an artificial leaf, has been developed by scientists from several Polish research units. The solution may also be used to build photosensors with very high sensitivity, detecting important molecules, for example in human blood.
Do we have free choice or are our decisions predetermined? Is physical reality local, or does what we do here and now have an immediate influence on events elsewhere? The answers to these questions are sought by physicists in the Bell inequalities. It turns out that free choice and local realism can be skilfully measured and compared. The results obtained reveal surprising relationships of a fundamental and universal nature, going far beyond quantum mechanics itself.
Thanks to the technology developed by the team of prof. Juan Carlos Colmenares from the Institute of Physical Chemistry, Polish Academy of Sciences (IPC PAS), it is easy to create materials that, under the sunlight, can effectively capture toxic compounds from the environment and neutralize them.
When heavy ions, accelerated to the speed of light, collide with each other in the depths of European or American accelerators, quark-gluon plasma is formed for fractions of a second, or even its “cocktail” seasoned with other particles. According to scientists from the IFJ PAN, experimental data show that there are underestimated actors on the scene: photons. Their collisions lead to the emission of seemingly excess particles, the presence of which could not be explained.